logotype
    Bernard
     

Bernard Robaire, Ph.D.

Professor

McGill University

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics

3655 Promenade Sir William Osler

McIntyre Medical Sciences Building

Montréal, Qc H3G 1Y6

Tel: (514) 398 3630

Fax: (514) 398 7120

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/pharma/robairelab

 

 

Research Interests :

  • male infertility
  • contraception
  • androgen action
  • male reproductive ageing
  • male mediated developmental toxicity
  • reproductive toxicology

 

Summary of Results:

 

Impact of exposure to phthalates, their metabolites and "green" plasticizers on male reproductive health.

Phthalates are high production volume chemicals, used to make poly vinyl chloride more processible and flexible. The phthalates in many consumer products leach out into the environment. Consequently, human exposure to phthalates is widespread, yet the extent and full nature of their effects on either the environment or human health are not known. Animal studies have shown that phthalates act as endocrine disruptors at environmentally relevant concentrations; in utero exposures result in abnormal development of the male reproductive system. Epidemiological studies have reported an association between phthalate exposure during pregnancy and an elevated incidence of hypospadias in the offspring. There are two studies of the relationship between phthalates and reduced male fertility with differing conclusions; the basis for the difference is unclear. More research is essential to understand the extent to which these compounds disrupt the endocrine system and, more specifically, adversely affect male reproduction.

Plasticizers are needed for the production of an immense range of consumer products. The challenge is to develop “green” plasticizers to replace phthalates in plastics. Green plasticizers should not be toxic and, ideally, should be biodegradable so that they do no accumulate in the environment. To understand the mechanisms underlying the male reproductive toxicity of phthalates and to progress towards the ultimate goal of developing replacements, we propose to pursue four specific aims: 1) to develop “green” replacement plasticizers and to determine the effects of these “green” plasticizers on the targets of phthalates and their metabolites in cell-based assays, focusing on Leydig, Sertoli and male germ cells; 2) to evaluate the impact of exposure to “green” replacement plasticizers on the developing and adult testis in an animal model; 3) to test the hypothesis that phthalates adversely affect human male reproductive health by examining the relationship between exposure to phthalates and male infertility; and 4) to explore the ethical, legal and regulatory obligations of stakeholders affected by phthalates, including industry, regulators, and the general public, with workshops, focus groups, and interviews.

We have well established methodology for the design, synthesis and testing of alternative plasticizers (Maric, in collaboration with Cooper, Yargeau and Leask). We have identified a lead compound for each of two classes of plasticizers, dibenzoates and poly(caprolactone) diols. We propose to determine the mechanical properties and the biodegradation pathway of these lead compounds. Next we will develop and validate, using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as the reference plasticizer, cell- based assays to determine if our candidate plasticizers affect cells from the three major testicular cell types: Leydig cells, male germ cells, or Sertoli cells (Papadopoulos, in collaboration with Robaire, Tremblay, Culty and Nagano). This cell-based approach, proposed in the National Academy of Sciences report entitled: “Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century”, will be supported by infrastructure that has just been awarded under the auspices of our CFI Infrastructure NIF entitled “Toward a healthy environment: green chemistry and green chemicals”. Under specific aim 2 we propose to compare the compounds selected on the basis of cell-based assays for in vivo studies in an animal model to determine the consequences of in utero and postnatal exposure with respect to endpoints of general toxicity and male reproductive system toxicity, compared to DEHP (Robaire, in collaboration with Hales, Culty, Nagano). To address the proposed hypothesis in specific aim 3, we will undertake a cross-sectional study and examine phthalate exposure and reproductive parameters in a population of males with a proven history of natural fecundity and a population of male partners within an infertility clinic. Using stimulation with clomiphene citrate we will assess how exposure to phthalates modulates the changes in Leydig cell function (serum LH, testosterone) and seminiferous tubule function (semen profile and sperm chromatin quality) (Chan, Robaire and Dodds). Finally, in specific aim 4, we (Nisker, in collaboration with Mykitiuk and Scott) propose to use focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires to do both qualitative and quantitative research on the regulatory framework required for phthalates and other plasticizers, responsibilities of health practitioners regarding phthalates, strategies to reduce phthalate exposures in the home/work environment, and the ethical questions raised in balancing the rights of persons with the interests of future persons if phthalate exposures affect future generations.

Together, these studies will provide essential information with respect to (i) the identification of safer new “green” replacement plasticizers, (ii) the development and validation of highly valuable new toxicity test platforms for putative male reproductive toxicants, (iii) the relationship between phthalates and human male infertility and (iv) knowledge translation strategies to make this information accessible to regulators, policy makers and the public.

 

Effects of brominated flame retardants on reproductive health: animal, human, ethical, legal and social studies.

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used as fire retardants in a wide variety of consumer products for several decades. During the past 20 years, the concentrations of BFRs in the environment have increased dramatically, with >80% of human exposure due to contaminated dust in our homes and work places and the remainder through food. Human body burdens of BFRs in North Americans are now among the highest in the world, especially in newborns and young infants. Yet, to date, there are no studies that have assessed the impact of chronic exposures to appropriate doses of environmentally relevant BFR mixtures, such as those reported in house dust. We hypothesize that chronic exposure to the environmentally relevant BFR mixtures found in North American house dust has adverse impacts on the reproductive system.

To test this hypothesis, we will: (1) mimic human BFR exposure in animal models to investigate effects on the development and function of the male and female reproductive systems and the underlying mechanisms; (2) elucidate the impact of BFR exposure in the adult and during gestation and postnatal development on human reproduction; and (3) explore the ethical, legal and social issues pertaining to the governance of risk and the regulation of reproductive exposures in the fetus and postnatally.

 

Androgen Action in the Epididymis

Understanding of the male reproductive system and the way androgens (male hormones) work will lay the foundation for the development of male contraceptives, treatment of male infertility, management of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia, acne, and andropause. Focusing on the epididymis, the site where spermatozoa are matured and stored, provides an ideal model because of its dependence on androgens and other testicular factors, its central role in producing functional sperm, its cellular and longitudinal organization and its attractiveness as a target for male contraceptive. The long-term objective is to develop novel therapeutic approaches for the management of male infertility and contraception. In the short term, the two specific aims are: 1-to determine the relative roles of androgens and factors found in the lumen of the epididymis in regulating molecular changes in this tissue by studying cell specific gene expression and action of cell regulators; 2-to establish how the key enzymes in making the most active androgen are regulated at the gene and protein levels and determine the consequences of treating with powerful inhibitors of this activity.

 

Drug-induced Molecular Changes in Male Germ Cell Chromatin: consequences to the embryo

Exposure to drugs and environmental chemicals during pregnancy is well established as a cause of adverse progeny outcomes. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence demonstrates that the exposure of sperm to many chemicals can result in embryo death, malformations, and behavioural abnormalities in the children of exposed fathers. Using the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CPA), our laboratories have been at the forefront of this field. We have shown that the adverse effects on progeny resulting from paternal CPA exposure are associated with altered gene expression in sperm at key stages of sperm production. We have shown that CPA exposure increases the incidence of abnormal chromosomes, alters the progression of sperm through meiosis, causes specific damage in the genetic material, and disrupts early events just after fertilization in the genomes of both the father and the mother. Our goal is to find out the mechanisms by which paternal CPA exposure affects the structure and organization of the chromatin of sperm and how these effects impact on the embryo. These studies will establish a mechanistic understanding of how a paternal chemical exposure alters male germ cell quality in a manner that disrupts normal embryo development. We hope to provide novel targets to permit the assessment and potentially prevention of such undesired effects; these may be relevant clinically in the context of today's increasing use of assisted reproductive technologies for male infertility.

 

Aging of Male Germ Cells

Male germ cells are made on an ongoing basis in the testes of adult non-seasonal mammals. Relatively little is known about how the quality of spermatozoa is affected by advancing age, i.e., whether the spermatogonia, that divide to produce subsequent generations of germ cells, accumulate damage that results in spermatozoa of diminished quality as individuals age. In man, there is an increasing rate of abnormalities in chromosomes with aging. There is a strong correlation between the age of the male partner and decreased sperm motility and normal morphology, decreased pregnancy rates, and increased time to pregnancy. The lack of well-designed prospective studies makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions from human data. The Brown Norway rat has proven to be an excellent model to study the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. We have found that during aging there are clear effects on progeny outcome and on sperm morphology and motility. However, the underlying factors that result in these clear age related effects are not clear. We hypothesize that early male germ cells are modified during the process of aging and that this results in spermatozoa of functionally poorer quality. we will 1) test the hypothesis that aging causes an accumulation of damage to chromatin; 2) determine whether aging affects the methylation of DNA; 3) pursue preliminary gene expression profiling studies on male germ cells to evaluate specific genes are induced or repressed during aging; and 4) determine whether stem cells derived from aged animals are able to repopulate a seminiferous epithelium as efficiently as those coming from young animals. Together these studies will provide a clear indication of how aging affects both germ cell chromatin and function.


How do drugs used to treat cancer affect the reproductive function of males, their progeny, and their state of mind related to reproduction?

There is public concerns about the potential impact of exposure to drugs or environmental chemicals on reproduction in general and germ cells in particular.  We hypothesize that the drug combinations used to treat testicular cancer and lymphomas have significant detrimental effects on the quantity and quality of male germ cells.  Furthermore, the damage to these germ cells may lead to fetal death and birth defects in the offspring or to an increased risk of transmitting genomic damage to future generations.  In project 1, we will evaluate the effects of anticancer drug treatments in men of reproductive age on their fertility and the genetic integrity of their germ cells.  In project 2, we will determine what risk information is provided to these men and if the provision of this information in a timely and supportive manner will reduce their psychosocial stress.  In project 3, we will use the rat as an animal model to determine the mechanisms by which these cancer treatments damage male germ cells or somatic cells or stem cells in the testis; the goal of these experiments is to establish endpoints which will be useful in assessing human germ cell quality.  In project 4, we will provide the framework for an innovative and multi-disciplinary approach to the training of the highly trained personnel that are needed to accelerate progress in this research area in the future.
 

Laboratory Members : 

Name

Position

Email Address

Anne-Marie Downey

PhD Student

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Thomas Nardelli

PhD Student

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Trang Luu

Technician

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Elise Boivin-Ford

Administrative Coordinator

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Océane Albert

Postdoctoral Fellow 

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Minju Cao

Research Associate

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Heather Fice Undergraduate Research Trainee This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Publications (last 5 years):  

O’Flaherty C, Hales BF, Chan P, Robaire B. (2010) Impact of chemotherapeutics and advanced testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma on sperm deoxyribonucleic acid integrity. Fertil. Steril. 94:1374-79.

Barratt CLR, Aitken RJ, de Boer P, Björndahl L, Carrell DT, Perreault SD, Kvist U, Lewis SEM, Perry MJ, Ramos L, Robaire B, Ward S, Zini A. (2010) Sperm DNA: organization, protection and vulnerability: from basic science to clinical applications. A position report. Hum Reprod. 25:824-38.

Delbès G, Vaisheva F, Luu T, Marcon L, Hales BF, Robaire B. (2010) Reversibility of the effects of the chemotherapeutic regimen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, on the male rat reproductive system and progeny outcome. Reprod Toxicol. 29:332‑8.

Grenier L, Robaire B, Hales, BF. (2010) Paternal exposure to cyclophosphamide affects the progression of sperm chromatin decondensation and activates a DNA damage response in the prepronuclear rat zygote. Biol Reprod. 83:195-204.

Marcon L, Zhang X, Hales BF, Nagano MC, Robaire B. (2010) Development of a short-term fluorescence-based assay to assess the toxicity of anticancer drugs on rat stem/progenitor spermatogonia in vitro. Biol Reprod. 83:228-37.

Hamzeh M, Robaire B. (2010) Identification of early response genes and pathway activated by androgens in the initial segment and caput regions of the regressed rat epididymis. Endocrinology. 151:4504-14.

Yanagiya A, Delbès G, Svitkin YV, Robaire B, Sonenberg N. (2010) The poly(A)-binding protein partner Paip2a controls translation during late spermiogenesis in mice. J Clin Invest. 120:3389‑400.

Carroll M, Luu T, Robaire B. (2011) Null mutation of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3) affects spermatozoal motility parameters and epididymal gene expression. Biol Reprod. 84:765-74.

Marcon, L., Zhang, X., Hales, B., Robaire, B., and Nagano, M.C. (2011) Effects of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Testicular Cancer on Rat Spermatogonial Stem/Progenitor Cells. J Androl. 32:432-43.

Hamzeh M, Robaire B. (2011) Androgens Activate Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase via Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in the Mouse PC-1 Cell Line. J Endo. 209:55‑64.

Hales BF, Grenier L, Lalancette L, Robaire B. (2011) Epigenetic programming: from gametes to blastocyst. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 91:652-65.

Paul C, Nagano M, Robaire B. (2011) Aging results in differential regulation of DNA repair pathways in pachytene spermatocytes in the Brown Norway rat. Biol Reprod. 85:1269-78.

Carroll M, Robaire B. (2011) Null mutation of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3) in male mice adversely impacts on fertility and reproductive outcome. J. Androl. in press. PMID: 22016354.

O’Flaherty CM, Chan PT, Hales BF, Robaire B. (2011) Sperm chromatin structure components are differentially repaired in cancer survivors. J Androl. In press. PMID: 22052778.

Chan D, Delbès G, Landry M, Robaire B, Trasler JM. (2011) Epigenetic alterations in sperm DNA associated with testicular cancer treatment. Toxicol Sci. In press. PMID: 22076425.

Grenier L, Robaire B, Hales BF. (2011) Paternal cyclophosphamide exposure induces the formation of functional micronuclei during the first zygotic division. PLoS One. 6:e27600.

Delbès G, Yanagiya A, Sonenberg N, Robaire B. (2011) PABP interacting protein 2A (PAIP2A) regulates specific key proteins during spermiogenesis in the mouse. Biol Reprod. In press. PMID: 22190698.

Larcher S, Delbès G, Robaire B, Yargeau V. (2012) Degradation of 17α-ethinylestradiol by ozonation – Identification of the by-products and assessment of their estrogenicity and toxicity. Environ Int. 39:66‑72.

Piché CD, Sauvageau D, Vanlian M, Erythropel HC, Robaire B, Leask RL. (2012) Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and four of its metabolites on steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 79:108-15.

Ernest SR, Wade MG, Lalancette C, Ma YQ, Berger RG, Robaire B, Hales BF. (2012) Effects of chronic exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of brominated flame retardants on the reproductive and thyroid system in adult male rats. Toxicol Sci. 127:496.

Grenier L, Robaire B, Hales BF. (2012) The Activation of DNA Damage Detection and Repair Responses in Cleavage Stage Rat Embryos by a Damaged Paternal Genome. Toxicol Sci. 127:555.

Maselli J, Hales BF, Chan P, Robaire B. (2012) Exposure to Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cis-platinum Alters Rat Sperm Chromatin Integrity and Sperm Head Protein Profile. Biol Reprod. 86:166,1-10.

Vendramini V, Robaire B, Miraglia SM. (2012) Amifostine-doxorubicin association causes long-term prepubertal spermatogonia DNA damage and early developmental arrest. Hum Reprod. 27:2457-2466.

Yauk CL, Lucas Argueso J, Auerbach SS, Awadalla P, Davis SR, Demarini DM, Douglas GR, Dubrova YE, Elespuru RK, Glover TW, Hales BF, Hurles ME, Klein CB, Lupski JR, Manchester DK, Marchetti F, Montpetit A, Mulvihill JJ, Robaire B, Robbins WA, Rouleau GA, Shaughnessy DT, Somers CM, Taylor JG 6th, Trasler J, Waters MD, Wilson TE, Witt KL, Bishop JB.(2013) Harnessing genomics to identify environmental determinants of heritable disease. Mutat Res. 752:6-9.

Delbès G, Chan D, Hales BF, Trasler JM, Robaire B. (2013) Selective induction of glutathione S-transferases in round spermatids from the Brown-Norway rat by the chemotherapeutic regimen for testicular cancer. Reprod Tox. 36:24-32.

Yauk CL, Bishop J, Dearfield KL, Douglas GR, Hales BF, Luijten M, O'Brien JM, Robaire B, Sram R, van Benthem J, Wade MG, White PA, Marchetti F. (2013) The development of adverse outcome pathways for mutagenic effects for the organization for economic co-operation and development. Environ Mol Mutagen. 54:79-81.

Paul C, Robaire B. (2013) Ageing of the male germ line. Nat Rev Urol. 10:227-234.

Maselli J, Hales BF, Chan P, Robaire B. (2013) The effects of chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and Cis-platinum (BEP) on rat sperm chromatin remodeling, fecundity and testicular gene expression in the progeny. Biol Reprod.89:85.

Kichine E, Di Falco M, Hales BF, Robaire B, Chan P. (2013) Analysis of the Sperm Head Protein Profiles in Fertile Men: Consistency across Time in the Levels of Expression of Heat Shock Proteins and Peroxiredoxins. PLoS One. 8:e77471.

Paul C, Nagano M, Robaire B. (2013) Aging Results in Molecular Changes in an Enriched Population of Undifferentiated Rat Spermatogonia. Biol Reprod. 89:147.

Paul C, Robaire B. (2013) Impaired Function of the Blood-Testis Barrier during Aging Is Preceded by a Decline in Cell Adhesion Proteins and GTPases. PLos One. 8:e84354.

Maselli J, Hales BF, Chan P, Robaire B. (2014) Paternal Exposure to Testis Cancer Chemotherapeutics Alters Sperm Fertilizing Capacity and Affects Gene Expression in the Eight-Cell Stage Rat Embryo Andrology. 2:259. CIHR MOP-119275

Zini A, Albert O, Robaire B. (2014) Assessing sperm chromatin and DNA damage: Clinical importance and development of standards. Andrology. 2:322. CIHR MOP-119275

Liu M, Hales BF, Robaire B. (2014) Effects of four chemotherapeutic agents, bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide, on DNA damage and telomeres in a mouse spermatogonial cell line. Biol Reprod. 90:72. CIHR MOP-119275

Berger RG, Lefèvre PL, Ernest SR, Wade MG, Ma YQ, Rawn DF, Gaertner DW, Robaire B, Hales BF. (2014) Exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of brominated flame retardants affects fetal development in Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology. 320:56.

Poon S, Wade MG, Aleksa K, Rawn DF, Carnevale A, Gaertner DW, Sadler A, Breton F, Koren G, Ernest SR, Lalancette C, Robaire B, Hales BF, Goodyer CG. (2014) Hair as a biomarker of systemic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Sci Technol. 48:14650-8.

Downey AM, Robaire B. (2015) Zygotic chromosomal structural aberrations after paternal drug treatment. Asian J Androl. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.

Selvaratnam J, Paul C, Robaire B. (2015) Male rat germ cells display age-dependant and cell-specific susceptibility in response to oxidative stress challenges. Biol Reprod. 93:72, 1-17.

Liu M, Maselli J, Hales BF, Robaire B (2015) The effects of chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cis-platinum on telomeres in rat male germ cells. Andrology doi: 10.1111/andr.12102.

Nardelli TC, Erythropel HC, Robaire B. (2015) Toxicogenomic screening of replacements for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) using the immortalized TM4 Sertoli cell line. PLOS One 10(10):e0138421.

Lefèvre PLC, *Berger RG, Ernest SR, Gaertner DW, Rawn DFK, Wade MG, Robaire B, Hales BF. (2015) Exposure of female rats to an environmentally relevant mixture of brominated flame retardants targets the ovary, affecting folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Biol Reprod. In press.

Reviews

Hermo L, Robaire B. (2010) An Overview of Sperm Production. In: Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility: Integrating Modern Clinical and Laboratory Practice. (D.T. Carrell and C.M. Peterson. eds.) Springer. pp.345-355.

Hales BF, Robaire B. The Male Germ Cell as a Target for Toxicants. In: Comprehensive Toxicology, Second edition, (C. A. McQueen, ed.) Vol. 11: Reproductive and Endocrine Toxicology, (J. Richburg and P. Hoyer, eds.) Elsevier, Oxford, UK. pp.115-29. 2010.

Delbès G, Hales BF, Robaire B. (2010) Toxicants and human sperm chromatin integrity. Mol Hum Reprod. 16:14-22.

Hales B, Robaire B. (2010) Can spermatozoa be targets for drugs? If so, what are the consequences of such drug exposures? Is there a need for pre-conception counselling for men? (B. Robaire and P. Chan, eds.) Handbook of Andrology, Second Edition. The American Society of Andrology, Second Edition. Lawrence, Kansas, Chapter 29.

Robaire B. (2010) How is sperm chromatin structure assessed? What is the value of doing such assessments? (B. Robaire and P. Chan, eds.) In: Handbook of Andrology, Second Edition. The American Society of Andrology, Lawrence, Kansas. Chapter 13.

Robaire B, Murphy BD. (2011) From the Editors: BOR launches the “World of Reproductive Biology”. Biol Reprod. 85:1.

Hales BF, Robaire B. (2011) Paternally-Mediated Effects On Development. In: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, a practical approach. (R.D. Hood, ed.) CRC Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp. 125-146.

Chan P, Robaire B. (2011) Cancer in males: implications for sperm quality, fertility and progeny outcome. In: Sperm Chromatin: Biological and Clinical Applications in Male Infertility and Assisted Reproduction. (A. Zini and A. Agarwal, eds.) Humana Press-Springer Science, Chapter 24, pp. 354-60.

Robaire B, Hamzeh H. (2011) Androgen action in the epididymis. J Androl. 32:592-9.

Hales BF, Grenier L, Lalancette C, Robaire B. (2011) Epigenetic programming: From gametes to blastocyst, Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 81:652-65.

Hales BF, Robaire B. (2012) Paternally-Mediated Effects On Development. In: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, a practical approach. (R.D. Hood, ed.) Informa Healthcare, New York, NY, pp. 76-92.

O'Flaherty C, de Lamirande E, Leclerc P, Lefievre L, Robaire B. (2012) Memorial: Claude Gagnon, Ph.D. (1950-2012). J Androl. 33:1125.

O'Flaherty CM, de Lamirande E, Leclerc P, Lefievre L, Robaire B. In Memoriam: Claude Gagnon, Ph.D., 1950-2012. Biol Reprod. 2012 Jun 13. In Press. PMID: 22699488.

Robaire B, Paul C, Selvaratnam J. (2012) Age and Oxidative Stress in the Germ Line. In: Agarwal A., Aitken R.J. and Alvarez J. (eds.) Studies on Men's Health and Fertility. (pp. 131-148). New York, NY: Humana Press.

Robaire B. (2013) What’s in a word? Biol Reprod. 89:45.

Morales C, Hermo L, Robaire B. (2014) A Man for All Seasons: Celebrating the Scientific Career of Yves Clermont. Biol Reprod. 90:51.

Robaire B, Hinton B. (2014) The Epididymis. In: Knobiland Neill’s Physiology of Reproduction. (A. Zeleznik and A. Plant eds.) Ch. 17. Elsevier, New York, pp. 691-771.

Hales BF, Robaire B. (2014) The Male Germ Cell as a Target for Toxicants. In: Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Elsevier, New York, In press.

Hess R, Hermo L, Robaire B. (2015) Lessons learned in andrology: Yves Clermont, an interview by Lonnie D. Russell. Andrology, 3:1015-1021.

Books

Robaire B, Chan P. (eds.) Handbook of Andrology, Second Edition. The American Society of Andrology, Lawrence, Kansas, 2010.


Awards :

2015:                     Andrology Award - best paper published in Andrology in 2014

2013:                     Fellow, Royal Society of Canada

2013:                     Fellow, Society for the Study of Reproduction

2011:                     R. Howard Webster Foundation Award in Reproductive Medicine

2007-8:                  Distinguished Andrologist Award from the American Society of Andrology (ASA)

2006:                     Distinguished Academic Award, CAUT (Canadian Association of University Teachers)

2006:                     Elected “Membre Émérite” of Acfas (Association francophone pour le savoir)

2002-2016:            James McGill Professor

2002:                     Ernst Schering Foundation Lecture

2000:                     Distinguished Service Award, American Society of Andrology

1997:                     Award for Excellence in Reproduction from the Canadian Fertility & Andrology Society

1997:                     Distinguished Service Certificate from the International Society of Andrology

1997:                     Recipient of Award for Best Publication in the 1996 Journal of Andrology

1993:                     Elected to the Society of Scholars, Johns Hopkins University

1990:                     Elected member of the Delta Omega Honor Society, Johns Hopkins University

1989:                     Distinguished Service Certificate from the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.

1977-1982:            MRC Scholarship

1977, 1982, 1990:  Wyeth Award from the Canadian Fertility and Andrology Societies

1974-1976:            NIH Post-Doctoral Fellowship

1970-1974:            MRC Studentship support

1970:                     BA with Honors, UCLA

1969:                     Dean's Honor List at UCLA

1966-1967:     Dean's Honor List at LACC